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We propose a classical mechanism for the cosmic expansion during the radiation-dominated era, assuming the Universe as a two-component gas. The first component is the ultra-relativistic “standard” fraction described by an equation of state of an ideal quantum gas of massless particles. The second component consist of superheavy charged particles and their interaction with the “standard” fraction drives the expansion. This interaction is described by the Reissner–Nordstr¨om metric purely geometrically — the superheavy charged particles are modeled as zero-dimensional naked singularities which exhibit gravitational repulsion. The radius of a repulsive sphere, surrounding a naked singularity of charge Q, is inversely proportional to the energy of an incoming particle or the temperature. The expansion mechanism is based on the “growing” of the repulsive spheres of the superheavy particles with the drop of the temperature — this drives apart all neutral particles and particles of specific charge q/m such that sign(Q)q/m ≥ −1. The Reissner–Nordstr¨om expansion mechanism naturally ends at Recombination. We model the Universe during the Reissner–Nordstr¨om expansion as a van der Waals gas and determine the equation of state.
Prodanov, E., Ivanov, R. & Gueorguiev, V.G. (2007) REISSNER–NORDSTROM¨ EXPANSION, in H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus and G.F. Lewis, (eds.) "Dark Matter in Astroparticle and Particle Physics - Proceedings of the 6th International Heidelberg Conference", World Scientific, 2007.