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Building evacuation simulation provides the planners and designers an opportunity to analyse the designs and plan a precise, scenario specific instruction for disaster times. Nevertheless, when disaster strikes, the unexpected may happen and many egress paths may get blocked or the conditions of evacuees may not let the execution of emergency plans go smoothly. During disaster times, effective route-finding methods can help efficient evacuation process, in which the directors are able to react to the sudden changes in the environment. This research tries to integrate the highly accepted human dynamics methods proposed by Fruin into the Ant-Colony optimisation route-finding method. The proposed method is designed as a multi-objective ant colony system, which tries to minimize the congestions in the bottlenecks during evacuations, in addition to the egress time, and total traversed time by evacuees. This method embodies the standard crowd dynamics method in the literature, which are Fruin LOS and pedestrian speed. The proposed method will be tested against a baseline method, that is shortest path, in terms of the objective functions, which are evacuation time and congestion degree. The results of the experiment show that a multi-objective ant colony system performance is able to reduce both egress time and congestion degree in an effective manner, however, the method efficiency drops when the evacuee population is small. The integration of Fruin LOS also produces more meaningful results, as the load responds to the Level of Service, rather than the density of the crowd, and the Level of Service is specifically designed for the sake of measuring the ease of crowd movement.
Kiafar, Tirdad (2018). Intergrating the fruin LOS into the multi-objective ant colony system. Misters dissertation, DIT, 2018.