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One desired aspect of microservices architecture is the ability to self-adapt its own architecture and behaviour in response to changes in the operational environment. To achieve the desired high levels of self-adaptability, this research implements the distributed microservices architectures model, as informed by the MAPE-K model. The proposed architecture employs a multi adaptation agents supported by a centralised controller, that can observe the environment and execute a suitable adaptation action. The adaptation planning is managed by a deep recurrent Q-network (DRQN). It is argued that such integration between DRQN and MDP agents in a MAPE-K model offers distributed microservice architecture with self-adaptability and high levels of availability and scalability. Integrating DRQN into the adaptation process improves the effectiveness of the adaptation and reduces any adaptation risks, including resources over-provisioning and thrashing. The performance of DRQN is evaluated against deep Q-learning and policy gradient algorithms including: i) deep q-network (DQN), ii) dulling deep Q-network (DDQN), iii) a policy gradient neural network (PGNN), and iv) deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG). The DRQN implementation in this paper manages to outperform the above mentioned algorithms in terms of total reward, less adaptation time, lower error rates, plus faster convergence and training times. We strongly believe that DRQN is more suitable for driving the adaptation in distributed services-oriented architecture and offers better performance than other dynamic decision-making algorithms.
Magableh, B. (2019). A Deep Recurrent Q Network towards Self-adapting Distributed Microservices architecture. CoRR, cs.SE, arXiv:1901.04011. [preprint in press article accepted Jan. 2019.]