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Study Objectives: Our group and others have reported a high rate of vitamin D deficiency in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), where vitamin D levels (25(OH) D) correlate negatively with OSA severity and some of its associated metabolic alterations. Data regarding vitamin D supplementation in OSA are lacking. We wanted to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on OSA symptoms and metabolic parameters. Methods: We conducted a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily supplementation with 4,000 IU vitamin D3 (D3) or placebo (PL). We studied 19 Caucasian adults (14 male, mean age 55 y, mean body mass index [BMI] 30.4 kg/m2) with OSA. Fifteen patients were stable on continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy, whereas four were CPAP naïve. Assessments were completed at baseline and after 15 weeks of supplementation. Outcomes included sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), quality of life (Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Inventory), fatigue (fatigue severity scale) and neuropsychological function (trail making test and Connor’s Continuous Performance Test II). In addition, we assessed biochemical indices of vitamin D status (25(OH)D, calcium), inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2), lipids (total cholesterol [low-density and high-density lipoprotein]) and glycemic indices (fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test). Results: There was no change in BMI, medication, or CPAP usage. Although there was no change in neuropsychological or quality of life indices, we observed a significant increase in 25(OH)D (p = 0.00001) and significant decreases in both low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.04) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (p = 0.037) as well as trends toward decreased fasting glucose (p = 0.09) and increased high-density lipoprotein (p = 0.07) in the D3 group compared to PL. Conclusions: Vitamin D3 supplementation increased vitamin D levels and decreased metabolic markers compared to placebo. Larger trials are required.
Kerley, C. et al. (2017) Vitamin D Improves Selected Metabolic Parameters but not Neuropsychological or Quality of Life Indices in OSA: A Pilot Study. Journal of clinical sleep medicine, 2017 Jan 15;13(1):19-26. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.6378.