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A number of approaches have been proposed for parameter and time delay estimation of process models in single input, single output (SISO) control systems using gradient descent algorithms; some of these approaches involve the selection of a rational polynomial that is used to approximate time delay variations. This paper takes a generalised approach to the investigation of the most appropriate choice of the rational polynomial, and the gradient descent algorithm, to be used.
O'Dwyer, Aidan and Ringwood, John : Model parameter and time delay estimation using gradient methods. Proceedings of the Irish Colloquium on DSP and Control, pp. 211-218, Dublin City University, July, 1994.