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Electrical and electronic engineering
This paper describes ten methods to identify a mathematical model for a real process with a time delay. The process is the Process Trainer, PT326 from Feedback Instruments Limited. Six of the methods use step response data and one of the methods uses impulse response data for identification. Two of the methods use frequency response data and the final method uses information from relay-based experiments. The best results are obtained using a combined analytical and gradient method  in the frequency-domain and, in the time-domain, using the two-point algorithm  and a method proposed by Suganda et al. .
Kealy, T.,O'Dwyer, A.:Comparison of Process Identification Techniques in the Time- and Frequency-domains.XVI International Conference on Systems Engineering (ICSE 2003), Coventry University, United Kingdom