A New Versatile Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometer For Vibration Measurements
Document Type Theses, Ph.D
Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy PhD to the Dublin Institute of Technology. 2013.
Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) has been widely used for vibration amplitude and phase measurements. Conventional ESPI systems are bulk and expensive and need careful alignment of all the optical components which is a time consuming task. To overcome these problems alternative compact ESPI systems were developed using fibre-optical components or holographic optical elements (HOEs). The fibre-optic based ESPI systems suffer from random phase fluctuations induced by environmental temperature changes. Hence HOEs can be used as more powerful alternative optical elements to design ESPI systems. The time average ESPI method is widely used for vibration studies. The time average method combined with phase stepping can be used for automatic vibration measurements. Using this technique higher vibration amplitudes cannot be measured because fringe patterns follow Bessel function intensity distribution. To overcome this problem an alternative technique can be used by modulating the phase of the reference beam in an unbalanced interferometer. This thesis reports a novel ESPI system for vibration measurements by combining use of holographic optical elements (HOEs) and optical path length modulation (reference beam phase modulation). The optical path length modulation is implemented using laser diode wavelength (frequency) modulation. Different HOE based ESPI systems are reported in this thesis using either a single HOE or dual HOE. This thesis examines performance of different HOE based ESPI systems that are sensitive to out-of-plane displacement components using laser diodes operating either in the near infrared or visible electromagnetic spectrum. Vibration modes of a circular metal plate clamped at the edges of a loud speaker and a circular metal plate driven by a piezoelectric actuator (PZT) were studied using a single RHOE based ESPI system and a hybrid (transmission HOE with a partially reflecting mirror) HOE based ESPI system respectively using a near infrared laser diode (763nm). Optical path length modulation technique was implemented using a laser diode operating in visible electromagnetic spectrum (658nm). Vibration mode patterns of a circular metal plate driven by a PZT actuator were obtained using both single RHOE and dual HOE based ESPI systems. Using optical path length modulation technique in a dual HOE based ESPI system detailed phase and amplitude maps of a circular metal plate driven by a PZT actuator are obtained. The dual HOE based ESPI system was also used for measuring roations of a circular metal plate mounted on a mirror mount. In conclusion we have developed a compact HOE based ESPI system to conduct vibration measurements. A few potential future developments are also suggested at the end of the thesis.