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Media and socio-cultural communication
Europe’s radio is also characterised by a long history of being defined and driven by the state, in highly centralized fashion in the case of countries such as France (Meadel 1994), or indeed in former totalitarian regimes of Eastern Europe (Paulu 1974), and along more federal or devolved lines in countries such as Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands (Kuhn 1985). The development of state broadcasting monopolies in most European countries, established in the early years of the twentieth century following the invention of sound broadcasting, has ensured that there is an enduring shared common ideological approach to radio broadcasting, which now finds expression in the field of digital radio policy.
B. O'Neill and H. Shaw 'Radio Broadcasting in Europe: the search for a common digital future' in O'Neill, B., M. Ala-Fossi, et al., Eds. (2010). Digital Radio in Europe: Technologies, Industries and Cultures. Bristol, Intellect Books, pp.27-42.