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Moisture content, shrinkage, water activity (Aw), color and texture of cooked chickpeas and soybeans during convective, microwave and combined microwave–convective drying were studied. Combined drying was significantly (P < 0.05) faster than either convective or microwave drying, and resulted in less shrinkage of the dehydrated product. Rapid burning occurred when samples were dried below a Aw of 0.27 ± 0.07 for chickpeas (P < 0.05), and 0.13 ± 0.04 for soybeans (P < 0.05). Both chickpeas and soybeans displayed a transitional behavior in texture when dried to a Aw below 0.40 ± 0.10 (P < 0.05) for chickpeas, and below 0.63 ± 0.15 (P < 0.05) for soybeans, when samples became brittle. Shelf stable dehydrated chickpea and soybean products with low water activity (Aw = 0.35) and good visual quality could be obtained within 14 min of combination drying.
Gowen, A. A., Abu-Ghannam, N., Frias, J. M., & Oliveira, J. C. (2007). Characteristics of cooked chickpeas and soybeans during combined microwave–convective hot air drying. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 31(4), 433-453.