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1.6 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Microbiology, Marine biology
Six species of edible Irish seaweeds; Laminaria digitata, Laminaria saccharina, Himanthalia elongata, Palmaria palmata, Chondrus crispus and Enteromorpha spirulina were screened for potential bioactivity. Extraction of secondary metabolites was carried out using different solvents to determine antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the dried extracts. The total phenolic contents of dried methanolic extracts were significantly different (p < 0.05). H. elongata exhibited highest phenolic content at 151.3 mg GAE/g of seaweed extract and also had the highest DPPH scavenging activity (p < 0.05) with a 50% inhibition (EC50) level at 0.125μg/ml of extract. H. elongata also had the highest total tannin and total flavonoid contents (p < 0.05) of 38.34 mg CE/g and 42.5 mg QE/g, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was determined using a microtitre method which allowed detection of bacterial growth inhibition at low levels. All methanolic seaweed extracts inhibited the food spoilage and food pathogenic bacteria tested; Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella abony, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, except C. crispus extracts. It was found that dried methanolic extracts of red and green seaweeds had significantly lower antimicrobial activity than the brown species; H. elongata had the highest antimicrobial activity with up to 100% inhibition. In the studied work, the antimicrobial activity of red and green seaweed extracts significantly increased when ethanol and acetone were used as extraction solvents (p < 0.05). Inhibition of E. faecalis with C. crispus extracts increased from 39.28 to 100% when ethanol and acetone were applied as solvents.
Cox, S., Abu-Ghannam, N. and Gupta, S.:An Assessment of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Six Species of Edible Irish Seaweeds. International Food Research Journal 17: 205-220 (2010)