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The requirement of future software defined and reconfigurable radio networks to operate in multiple, wide-ranging, frequency bands places heavy demands on antenna designs. Rather than using antennas tuned at the time of manufacture to operate in certain predefined frequency bands under predefined radio systems, which limits the possibilities of implementing new radio systems on a reconfigurable terminal, a wideband antenna is proposed. The use of a single antenna which can operate over many octaves is very desirable for future wireless communications systems. We discuss the characteristics of the planar monopole, an antenna with wideband properties. The addition of a second planar element orthogonal to a planar monopole improves the radiation pattern stability without degrading the ultrawideband impedance characteristics.
Ammann, M. (2003) Improved pattern stability for monopole antennas with ultrawideband impedance characteristics. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp.818-821. Columbus, Ohio, USA, 22-27 June, 2003, doi:10.1109/APS.2003.1217586