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Historically, poverty has been a deeply embedded reality within society, its nature and extent altering, over time, in response to shifts in socio-economic conditions, political ideology and value system. Poverty, as part of the human conditions, still remains intractable problem in both developed and developing nations and regions. This study is concerned, in particular, with urban poverty in an E.U. context. The overall aim of the research is to consider whether urban social exclusion is amenable to public policy intervention. A comparative study approach is used to explore the various approaches to partnership and anti-poverty policy in the selected countries and, where possible, identify positive, transferable elements of these programmes. The concept of poverty is one which has eluded an accepted definition for many years and the terminological debate looks set to continue. However, the recent introduction of the policy concept of social exclusion has drawn attention to the dynamic processes which are distinct from poverty itself, such as, labour market exclusion and exclusion from services and social relations. Tackling social exclusion has now become a key priority for many governments and, encouraged by the E.U., the last decade has seen a significant increase in the number of anti-poverty programmes which are managed through partnership with the various stakeholders involved. In many countries, particularly Ireland, these partnerships have developed and matured over the years and have had a varied impact on their catchment areas. It is now widely accepted that working in partnership is the most effective method for tackling the multi dimensional nature of the problem of social exclusion
Gallagher, C.: Policy and Programme Responses to Urban Social Exclusion 1990-2000 : a Selective European Cross Country Comparative Study. Masters Thesis. Dublin Institute of Technology, 2003.